Sunday, September 27, 2020

Industry Focus- SHOTCRETING


Shotcrete The way to the Future


Shotcrete is a cement-based mixture pneumatically projected at high velocity onto a receiving surface. Nowadays, because of the significant advances that occurred mainly in the last few decades, shotcrete can be considered a proper repair material particularly suitable in different situations such as where formwork is not practical or can be reduced or eliminated writes, ROHAN AMBIKE.



Shotcrete is a method of concrete work, in which a concrete mix is applied layerwise on a surface to be concrete under the compressed air pressure. The shotcrete is carried out with the shotcrete machine. The process of shotcrete has been known for almost a hundred years, and the field and scope of its use are continuously increasing in the world. The process was first applied in 1907 by Carl Akeley in the restoration of the facade of the Field Columbian Museum in Chicago. In Russia, the first shotcrete machine was delivered in 1916 for testing at the Military Engineering Office.


The difference between shotcrete and plastering, which is also often produced by a mechanical method, is a high degree of compaction due to the use of special equipment and the compressed air pressure of at least 4 at and a volume of at least 3 m3/min. Also, it is necessary to distinguish shotcrete (maximum filler diameter up to 10 mm) and jetcrete or shotcreting (more than 10 mm graded).


The global shotcrete market is segmented based on various parameters such as system, technique, application, and geography. Based on the system of spraying, the shotcrete market is classified into a manual system and robotic spraying system. Technique-based classification of shotcrete market is Wet mix shotcrete process and Dry mix shotcrete process. Further, application based classification for shotcrete market includes Underground construction, Water retaining structures, protective coatings and repair works. Wet mix shotcrete is a widely-used process of shotcrete utilization for construction purpose, whereas Dry mix shotcrete is currently used for repair and restoration works as intermittent spraying needs are much more easily accomplished using dry mix.


The construction of skyscrapers like 3,281-feet Jeddah Tower in Saudi Arabia, 1,965-feet Ping AN Finance Centre in China, 1,819-feet Lotte World Tower in Seoul, South Korea, recently completed 2,073-feet China’s Shanghai Tower is expected to increase the use of dry-mix process, thereby resulting in the demand for shotcrete globally. Serious disadvantages like high rebound and less air entrainment is anticipated to decline the use of the dry-mix process.


The global shotcrete market size was valued at $4,441 million in 2015 and is expected to grow at a CAGR of 8.6 per cent to reach $7,819 million by 2022. Shotcrete concrete is a spraying technique which is mainly used to reduce or eliminate the disadvantages of conventional concrete.



Fast Facts
  • The global shotcrete market is segmented based on various parameters such as system, technique, application, and geography.
  • The global shotcrete market size was valued at $4,441 million in 2015 and is expected to grow at a CAGR of 8.6 per cent to reach $7,819 million by 2022.
  • Asia-Pacific is projected to be the fastest growing region in the global Shotcrete market.




How is shotcrete used?


There are many applications that shotcrete can be used for and is an ever expanding field. The most common applications cover repairing damaged surfaces on existing structures, for example with bridges, buildings, marine structures, spillway surfaces. Another common application is the supplementing or replacing of conventional support materials such as lagging and steel sets, sealing rock surfaces, channeling water flows and installing permanent linings. Slope and surface protection is another useful application of shotcrete. Exposed rock surfaces or slopes that are liable to erode are often covered by shotcrete. Finally, new structures that involve large areas can be covered with shotcrete to save time. Examples of this can include pools and tanks, shotcrete walls and floors and shotcrete domes.


Implementing this technology effectively, either as a wet-mix or dry-mix shotcrete, comes with its’ own challenges. For example, employment of wet-mix spraying can lead to generally lower compressive strengths, restricted layer thickness and unadjustable moisture content. Employment of dry-mix spraying can lead to higher rebound, low air-entrainment and more dust. Both types of shotcrete also have issues with respect to pumpability and fluidity during their application. Reduction of these adverse effects can be aided by applying various additives or admixtures into the shotcrete mix.




Every customer is sensitive about cost of the equipment. But however, they are aware that good equipment performance comes from quality product and approach of the company in supporting the customers. Today, the customer realize that the lowest paid product is no guarantee to meet the performance parameter spare parts and service demand after the warranty period. Customers want more reliability and accuracy. V.G.Sakthikumar, MD, Schwing Stetter India Private Limited








We offer specialized simulator-based training for the operators. This helps prepare the operator to handle the equipment efficiently and saves valuable time and resources. For the more challenging projects, we station service specialists at the jobsite to ensure smooth operations and ongoing maintenance. We also have tie-ups with financers for this equipment. Wilfried Theissen, MD, Putzmeister India






Top Winning Strategy


Leading players in the global shotcrete industry have adopted various strategies to achieve additional market share. These key strategies are gathered from press releases, annual reports of market players, and primary calls made to industry experts. Market players profiled in this report are shotcrete manufacturers and distributors. Key strategies adopted by these players include product launch, joint venture, acquisition, partnership, expansion, and investment.





Shotcrete is gaining popularity in Rail and Road Projects mainly due to the NATM construction system being adapted for MOS of the upcoming and ongoing projects also in certain areas its popular to use SFS for a substitute to concrete lining to reduce construction costs. Its now getting very popular to use Robotic machine with local onboard screw compressor to do large diameter tunnels especially for road projects. SOMA CHAKRABARTY, MD,  EUROSTAR ENGINEERING PVT LTD






Segment Review


Underground construction includes construction of tunnels, mines, subways, water drainage and much more. Tunnels, mining, and concrete lining are the main sectors under underground construction works. In tunnelling and mining industries, rock stabilization, arch linings, large cavity filling are the main areas of shotcrete utilization. Tunnelling is the most prominent area of shotcrete application. Tunnels provide us with various environmental, social, and economic advantages like environmental preservation, topographic advantages in hilly or mountainous areas, reduction in noise pollution, providing an easy and fast mass transportation system thus being sustainable and economically efficient.


Sika AG provided building chemicals, tunnel stabilization by shotcrete spraying machines and concrete admixtures in the construction of Gotthard Base Tunnel in Switzerland, 57 km long which is the world’s longest railway tunnel. The upcoming ambitious Chinese undersea tunnel project of 123 km to host a rail line is anticipated to be a good opportunity for manufacturers to enter the Asia-Pacific market.



Key takeaways of the market
• Asia-Pacific is projected to be the fastest growing region in the global Shotcrete market. It accounted for a CAGR of 9.3 per cent from 2017-2025 in terms of revenue. The market in this region is expected to be primarily driven by rampant growth of tunnels, water retaining structures in China, India, and ASEAN countries. The growing need of underground metro lines and tunnels, rising urbanization and growing demand for reliable public transport are some of the key drivers for the growth of Shotcrete in the Asia-Pacific region.
• The market in Latin America is expected to register a significant growth rate over the forecast period. Rise in construction activities are expected to create lucrative growth opportunities for the players in this region.
• Mining companies, engineers and contractors are increasingly deploying quick, reliable, economic and efficient technology of pneumatically operated shotcrete. Shot-tech robotic system technology is dominating the market for shotcrete as it enables the shotcrete to spray automatically after blasting and allowing the nozzle operating crew to be safe.
• BASF SE, Heidelberg Cement, Grupo ACS, Lafargeholcim, Cemex, Sika AG, GCP Applied Technologies, U.S. Concrete, Mapei, and Normet are among the key players in global shotcrete market.
• Technological advancement is leading to the key innovation in the new product launches. Companies are also investing in expansions, mergers & acquisitions, and joint ventures in the market. The key multinational players rapidly investing in shotcrete technology to fulfil the growing demand for shotcrete in Europe and Asia Pacific. For instance, BASF AG installed a shotcrete plant in Andhra Pradesh, India. Moreover Sika AG started a shotcrete plant in Australia, to meet the growing demand for shotcrete in rail tunnels, suburbs in Forrest field Airport link.


Wet Mix: The fastest-growing process


Wet mix is the fastest-growing process of the shotcrete market. Europe is currently the largest user of wet mix shotcrete. This process accounted for nearly 80.0 per cent share of the overall shotcrete market, in terms of value, in 2015. Wet mix process is used when high set concrete quality is specified and high output is required. It is the most popular process used in mechanical tunneling and mining. Efficient applications of concrete by wet mix process, its cost–effectiveness, and less production of rebound in the form of cementitious material drives the market for wet mix in Europe.




Underground construction: The largest application of shotcrete


Underground construction is the largest application for shotcrete, and this trend is projected to continue during the forecast period due to the increasing infrastructural developments, rapid advancements in technology and raw materials, and growing need for transportation & underground excavations. In Europe, shotcrete is largely used in the underground construction industry due to the accelerating tunneling and mining activities. Underground construction is also projected to be the fastest-growing application, followed by protective coatings, water retaining structures, repair works, and others, between 2016 and 2021, due to increasing urbanization and growing demand for civil construction in developing countries such as India, Nigeria, and the Philippines.



Europe: The largest market for shotcrete


Europe is the largest market for shotcrete globally, which accounted for the maximum share of the global market, in terms of value, in 2015, mainly because of the increase in underground construction activities in major economies, such as Germany, Italy, Austria, and Switzerland. In addition, rapid advancements in technology and raw materials in shotcrete owing to Europe’s green and ecofriendly approach for construction activities also contribute to the growth of the shotcrete market in the region. Norway and Sweden show promising demand for shotcrete, and this trend is expected to continue in the near future due to the rise in use of shotcrete as a permanent lining in the single shell tunnel, as well as increasing need for underground transportation. Europe shows higher investments in tunneling and mining projects because of growing application markets, demand for low-cost housing, need for underground transportation, and availability of raw materials for shotcrete technology.




With the Government focus on all weather access roads to remote areas adjoining the border and laying of railway tracks in the states of North East, Sikkim, Uttarakhand, and J&K has a huge requirement for Tunneling Equipment and good opportunity. This benefits our company as well as the tunneling industry with our right offered products. Right time to be in India with huge tunneling activities in the coming years. RAJESHWAR SINGH, MD, GHH India 




Among the advantages of shotcrete over poured concrete are:


  • It does not need a complex system of forms like the more familiar poured-in-place concrete, since it is applied as a stiff paste and needs only a one-sided form, or none at all if it is applied over compacted soil
  • It requires no vibration or compaction after placement, since it is blown into place under pressure
  • It is an inexpensive way to build concrete in curves and irregular shapes that are difficult or impossible with conventional concrete forming, such as those needed in tanks, domes, swimming pools, and skate parks
  • It can be used with steel reinforcing bars, welded wire reinforcing mesh, fiber reinforcement mixed with the concrete, or with no reinforcement
  • It has the same non-combustible and fire-resistive qualities as concrete that has been formed and poured in the conventional manner.






The primary disadvantage of shotcrete compared to poured concrete is the amount of time that it takes when used for large foundations, structural piers, and other structures with large cross-sections, compared to using conventional forms for these large structures. Two common problems when applying shotcrete are gravel in the concrete aggregate that is too large, which interferes with the spraying of the concrete; and ready-mixed concrete that is too wet (too great a slump), so that it does not stick well to vertical and overhead surfaces.





















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